Legitimacy in the Academic Presidency: From Entrance to Exit (ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education)

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Of these 13 presidents, four agreed to participate in the study. The candidates were contacted by 1 an initial phone call explaining the nature of the study and intent to invite the president to participate in the study and 2 an e-mail inviting the participant to be a part of the study. The e-mail included an official letter of introduction outlining what would be expected from each participant, a copy of the MLQ, and a set of sample interview questions.

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The Transformative Leadership Fundraising Model shows how transactional leadership is critical for building a sense of dependability and trust prior to the implementation of transformational behaviors and characteristics. The model indicates how a president's transformational leadership behaviors and characteristics identified in this study i. The Transformative Leadership Fundraising Model illustrates how the presidents in this study use a transactional leadership approach to build trust with donors and then implement transformational leadership behaviors and characteristics to heighten motivation and enhance donor performance.

The results of this study show that the commonalities and differences of each president's transformational approach were shaped by the situation, the background and makeup of the institution and individual donor, and the president's specific leadership style.

The results reveal which leadership behaviors and characteristics presidents should integrate into their leadership approach to help strengthen their fund-raising success. The following discussion about the findings is organized using the four areas of transformational leadership i.

All four presidents emphasize the importance of vision in relation to their highly successful fund-raising activities. The results of this study show that each president had a different, unique method for constructing vision, but each president did use history and story to connect a donor's vision to the institution's vision. Bornstein emphasizes the need to understand the history and culture of an institution and develop a vision based on its past traditions.

She expresses the need for a president to be cautious about bringing a preconceived vision to an institution without regard for the past.

Legitimacy in the academic presidency : from entrance to exit - Danforth Library

During the interviews, Kerr and Odahowski provided examples that show how Bornstein developed a vision for Rollins College in this unique way and connected her fund-raising success to this leadership pattern. At the University of Virginia, Casteen notes that because of the financial situation in the Board of Trustees demanded that he focus on a transformational leadership approach. Casteen suggests that his transformational assignment was centered on the creation of vision and execution of fund raising.

Combined with his intellectual capacity, the University of Virginia's unique, rich history is an important factor that drives the vision of UVA's future. In this way, Bornstein and Casteen develop an inspiring vision that looks back as much as it looks forward. At Vanderbilt University, Gee started his tenure as president with the development of a vision. Caplis emphasizes how Hrabowski's values provide a powerful context for vision. Caplis suggests that Hrabowski's ability to not only articulate but to also embody the vision is a vital component in his fund-raising success.

Along with Casteen and Bornstein, Hrabowski notes the importance of integrating the past in the creation of a vision for the future, especially in the case of an individual donor. He emphasizes how the construction of vision must incorporate the wants, needs, and motivations of a donor to truly inspire the individual and move them toward a higher-level gift.

These examples show how the presidents in this study create a vision and articulate it to their constituency, which is one of the most important findings of this study. In every case, the presidents created a meaningful, inspiring vision using the institution or the donor's story. The use of story emerged as one of the distinguishing factors in a president's ability to be a highly successful fund raiser. It is at this nexus that the donor's response is at its highest potential.

Rita connects these wonderful threads, weaves them into a fabric, and then creates a garment for people to wear.

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Threads, fabric, garment—it seems like a process that moves naturally from something small and relevant into interconnected pieces that are held together by meaning, and then they become not only practical, keeping the individual warm in the winter and cool in the summer, but also colorful, beautiful, and meaningful to the person wearing it. All four presidents displayed behaviors and characteristics that support their strong interest in the individual needs of donors. The results of this study show that this characteristic may be the defining component in why these university and college presidents are able to create such a powerful, inspiring fund-raising vision.

Story was the bridge for this connection, but communicating, especially listening, surfaced as a major ingredient in fund-raising success. The presidents state that an individual's story can only be matched to a donor's need by listening. To understand an individual donor in this capacity…a president must listen.

If the donor were alive today, he would say his legacy came out of this conversation…an extended conversation with a lot of listening and shared ideas and concepts. If they are not aligned with strategic goals, history and traditions can act as impediments. In this sense, listening becomes the foundation for Bornstein's notion of how critical the match is between the past and the future. Gee's interview reveals that fund raising is more than a transaction.


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Gee refers to donors as partners. This relational term underlines his firm belief that donors are more than numbers on a ledger sheet. At this juncture, the vast difference between a university president and fund raising and a CEO and corporate sales was observed: that is, even though fund raising is a transaction, it is a transaction of a different nature. It is a transformational transaction. It is an exchange fused with meaning and purpose.

It is more about people, the impact on their lives, and making the world a better place. I mean he is truly interested in their stories. It stands out. People give from their soul, their heart, or their brain, and you have to know if its going to be something spiritual that moves them, something personal that touches their heart, or something intellectual that stimulates their mind, and only then can you truly connect with them. It is through intellectual stimulation of followers that the status quo is questioned and that new creative methods of accomplishing the institutions mission are explored.

I am excited about the life of the mind and about helping young people especially, and then sometimes not so young people, learn how to think critically and solve problems. I find that I enjoy asking questions of individuals and groups, questions that will push people to think about a topic or issue. And the ability to solve problems and to analyze situations can be very helpful when wanting to help an organization or a group of people move to the next level.

To me, the life of the mind is about examining self and thinking all the time about what's next? What am I doing with my life? Whereas in fundraising, the questions are: What is the purpose in this? How does fundraising help the institution? Why is it critical to find additional resources? Bornstein and Hrabowski display these behaviors, and in both cases, these attributes play a key role in their fund-raising success. The interviews reveal that both Bornstein and Hrabowski, unlike Gee and Casteen, were in situations that demanded this type of respect.

Legitimacy in the Academic Presidency : From Entrance to Exit

As a Jewish person, the first woman president at Rollins College, and a traditional fund raiser, Bornstein had many barriers to overcome in order to win the respect of her constituency. In the same sense, Hrabowski was surrounded by racial turmoil and tension, and he had to use a leadership approach that emphasizes behaviors associated with idealized influence.

Hrabowski's values in relation to racial issues and the mission of UMBC combined to create a powerful, symbolic partnership that strongly resonates with donors. These issues elevate Hrabowski's values in the eyes of donors and inspire them to financially support these values. If it is going too smoothly, he starts rattling the cage. He is at his best when there is a level of creative tension in the environment where he is pushing us or where he is being pushed forward.

If I have been successful at fundraising, it is my willingness to take the risk of asserting a larger purpose and staking our survival on getting it done. The Transformative Leadership Fundraising Model represents an accurate picture of the leadership approach used by the four university and college presidents who participated in this study.

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The model combines Bornstein's transformative leadership concept, Bass and Avolio's Augmentation Model of Transformational and Transactional Leadership, and the findings of this study. It is evident from the present study's findings that transactional and transformational approaches were used by the presidents into varying degrees within specific situations, but transformational leadership behaviors were used to a greater extent to heighten motivation and enhance donor response.

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The presidents who participated in this study display 14 specific behaviors and characteristics from MLQ's four transformational leadership categories i. The present study's findings suggest that further research should examine the four elements of transformational leadership, especially the two categories that emerged as the strongest components contributing to fund-raising success: inspirational motivation and individualized consideration. An examination of inspirational motivation may produce a more focused description of vision, the creation of vision from the story of an institution, and the communication of vision through the spoken word and embodiment of the vision.

For example, a study that explores a broader group of presidents from more diverse geographical locations and how they construct vision and whether they use the story of the institution in the process would provide richer insight into what level of influence certain approaches in this category have on fund-raising success. Additional studies that examine each transformational behavior may more accurately illustrate the impact that particular components have on strengthening fund-raising activities. The role that vice presidents for advancement play in complimenting, enhancing, or even substituting behaviors that a president may be unable to deliver should also be explored in future research.

In each case in this study, it was obvious that the vice president plays a critical role in the success of fund-raising activities and may be able to provide leadership behaviors and characteristics that help offset the weaknesses of a president's fund-raising skills. In addition, it would be valuable to explore alternative ways to strengthen fund-raising collaborations among a president's colleagues. Also, a study should be conducted that examines the extent to which these leadership approaches are used by university presidents who are unsuccessful fund raisers. This type of study would enable the current findings to be compared and contrasted and provide an even clearer picture of the behaviors and characteristics that play a critical role in successful fund raising.

Additionally, research that considers overall cultural differences from a national and an international perspective may unveil unique differences in how some college and university presidents approach fund raising in the context of varying cultural norms. Beyond cultural differences, a study that found ways to creatively test the Transformative Leadership Fundraising Model in other areas of leadership might also prove beneficial and confirm or deny that the findings are applicable outside the higher education arena. These recommendations for further research should be complemented by training aspiring and current university and college presidents about those behaviors and characteristics that result in successful fund raising.

According to Bornstein , a systematic program of continuing education, training, and mentorship's should be developed to assist sitting presidents and potential candidates. Ships with Tracking Number! May not contain Access Codes or Supplements.

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